language، anxiety، learning، participants’

een Males’ Anxiety, Motivation, and English Proficiency

Anxiety
Motivation
Proficiency
Anxiety
Pearson Correlation
1
-.385
-.452

Sig. (2-tailed)

.024
.007

N
34
34
34
Motivation
Pearson Correlation
-.385
1
.407

Sig. (2-tailed)
.024

.015

N
34
35
35
Proficiency
Pearson Correlation
-.452
.407
1

Sig. (2-tailed)
.007
.015

N
34
35
35

As shown in the above table, the value of the correlation between the male participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation to learn English is -0.385. Besides, the value of the correlation between the male participants’ language learning anxiety and their English proficiency is -0.452. However, the value of the correlation between the male participants’ motivation and their English proficiency is 0.407. Accordingly, there was a negative correlation between the male participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation, and between their language learning anxiety and their English proficiency. On the other hand, there was a positive correlation the male participants’ motivation to learn English and their English proficiency.
Furthermore, the values of the significance level suggest that there was a negative significant correlation between the male participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation (P 0.5). However, there was no significant relationship between their language learning anxiety and their English proficiency (P 0.05). Similarly, there was no significant relationship between the male participants’ motivation to learn English and their English proficiency (P 0.05).
Table 4.25 shows the results of the Pearson correlation test concerning the relationship between the female participants’ language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and their English proficiency:
Table 4.25
Correlation Between Females’ Anxiety, Motivation, and English Proficiency

Anxiety
Motivation
Proficiency
Anxiety
Pearson Correlation
1
-.432**
-.390**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.003
.009

N
44
44
44
Motivation
Pearson Correlation
-.432**
1
.204

Sig. (2-tailed)
.003

.179

N
44
45
45
Proficiency
Pearson Correlation
-.390**
.204
1

Sig. (2-tailed)
.009
.179

N
44
45
45

As can be seen in the above table, the value of the correlation between the female participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation to learn English is -0.432. Besides, the value of the correlation between the female participants’ language learning anxiety and their English proficiency is -0.390. However, the value of the correlation between the female participants’ motivation to learn English and their English proficiency is 0.204. Accordingly, there was a negative correlation between the female participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation, and similarly between their language learning anxiety and their English proficiency. On the other hand, there was a positive correlation the female participants’ motivation to learn English and their English proficiency.
Additionally, the values of the significance level suggest that there was a negative significant correlation between the female participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation (P 0.5). However, there was no significant relationship between their language learning anxiety and their English proficiency (P 0.05). Likewise, there was no significant relationship between the female participants’ motivation to learn English and their English proficiency (P 0.05).
A comparison of the relationships between males’ and females’ anxiety, motivation, and English proficiency indicated that there was a negative significant correlation between the male and female participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation. However, there was no significant relationship between the males’ and females’ language learning anxiety and their English proficiency, as well as between the males’ and females’ motivation to learn English and their English proficiency.
4.2 Discussion of Findings
The findings of the study indicated that the majority of the Iranian EFL learners experienced a mid to high level of language learning anxiety. This is typically supported by the results of previous research in this regard (Horwitz, 1987; Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986). With regard to the relationship between the participants’ anxiety and motivation, it was found that the low-anxiety group had the highest motivation to learn English. The mid-anxiety group occupied the second position in terms of the motivation to learn English while the lowest level language learning motivation was found among the participants in the high-anxiety group. In other words, the participants with lower levels of the language learning anxiety were more motivated to learn English. By comparison, those participants with higher levels of the language learning anxiety were less motivated to learn English as shown by other researchers (e.g., Gardner &Lalonde, 1987; Hashimoto, 2002). This is due to the fact that there was a negative significant relationship between the participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation to learn English.
Similar to previous studies (Gardner, 1985; Gardner et al., 1997), the findings of the present study concerning the relationship between the participants’ language proficiency and their level of anxiety generally suggested that the low-anxiety group had the highest level of English proficiency followed by the mid-anxiety group and the high-anxiety group. Consequently, the participants with lower levels of the language learning anxiety were more proficient English learners and vice versa as there was a negative significant relationship between the participants’ language learning anxiety and their English proficiency. This is in line with Soupon (2004) who found the language learning anxiety factor can negatively impact the performances of students, and that the lack of competence is the first reason for anxious students. Similarly, El-Banna (1981) observed a negative correlation between language anxiety and English proficiency of EFL/ESL learners in Egypt.In the same vein, Gardner (1985) and Gardner et al., (1997) observed high correlation between language anxiety and language proficiency.
Furthermore, the highly motivated language learnersin this study scored slightly higher on the English proficiency test that did the low motivated participants and there was a positive significant relationship between the participants’ motivation and their English proficiency. This is consistent with the results of the previous studies (Arani, 2004; Brown, 2000; Gardner, 2006; &Lifrieri, 2005).
The findings of this study concerning the male and female participants’ language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and their English proficiency indicate that there was no significant difference between the anxiety level of male and female participants. However, female learners reported to be slightly more anxious than the male learners. This is consistent with the results observed by Padilla, Cervantes, Maldonado and García (1988) who observed that female learners were more concerned about language complications than male learner, and they are more anxious and worried than male students. Similarly, AyashEzzi (2012) found that both male and female students had a high level of FL anxiety, but female-students’ anxiety was higher than male-students but Awan et al. (2010) found that female students were less anxious in learning English as a f
oreign language than male students.
In contrary to the findings of the present study, Campbell and Shaw (1994) showed a significant interaction between gender and foreign language anxiety in the sense that male students were more anxiety-ridden in using a foreign language in the classroom than their female counterparts.
Concerning the participants’ level of motivation, it was noted that the female participants were slightly were more motivated to learn English than the male participants were as confirmed by Karahan (2007). However, there is was no significant difference between the motivation level of male and female participants in this study. In addition, the percentage of the male and female participants in the mid-motivation group was higher than their percentages in low and high motivation groups.
On the whole, the findings indicate that there was no significant difference between the male and female participants concerning their language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and their English proficiency, suggesting that gender did not play a determining role in these three variables. This finding does not correspond with the results by Campbell and Shaw (1994) who showed a significant interaction between gender and foreign language anxiety.
Finally, a comparison of the relationship between males’ and females’ anxiety, motivation, and English proficiency indicate that there was a negative significant correlation between the male and female participants’ language learning anxiety and their motivation. However, there was no significant relationship between the males’ and females’ language learning anxiety and their English proficiency. This is contrary to the results observed by Kitano (2001). In addition, there was no significant relationship between the males’ and females’ motivation to learn English and their English proficiency.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

5.0 Introduction
The present chapter includes five main parts. In the first part, summary, a review of the study including the objectives and the methods used to collect and analyze the data are presented. The second part presents the conclusions of the study followed by pedagogical implications and recommendations for future research in the third and fourth parts. And finally, in the fifth part limitations of the study are discussed.

5.1 Summary
The purpose of the present study was to examine the degree of anxiety among Iranian EFL learners and its relation to their motivation. Considering the leaners’ gender, it also explored whether there was any significant relationship between anxiety, motivation and language proficiency for Iranian EFL learners. To this end, a total number of 80 EFL learners (35 males and 45 females) were selected through cluster random sampling from two language classes at Islamic Azad University, Sardasht Branch, Hormozgan Province, Iran as the participants in this study. The instruments used to collect the data from the participants were the Foreign Language Learning Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) used to measure the participants’ foreign language anxiety, Gardner’s (1985) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) used to measure the participants’ motivation to learn English, and a modified version of a paper-based TOEFL test that was used to measure the participants’ level of English proficiency. The collected data through these instruments were codified and entered SPSS Software (Version 19) and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient to answer research questions and to find the correlations between variables under study.
The findings of the study indicated that the majority of the participants were in the mid-anxiety group followed by the high-anxiety group and the low anxiety group. Taken the mid- and high-anxiety groups as a whole, most of the participants experienced a mid to high level of language learning anxiety.
With regard to the relationship between the participants’ anxiety and motivation, it was found that the participants with lower levels of the language learning anxiety were more motivated to learn English. By comparison, those participants with higher levels of the language learning anxiety were less motivated to learn

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