o are teaching second or foreign languages because learners who already experience some level of communication apprehension in their native language will face more anxiety when speaking a foreign or second language, such as English (Schlenker & Leary, 1982).Test anxiety, on the other hand, is an apprehension towards academic evaluation. It could be defined as a fear of failing in tests and an unpleasant feeling experienced either consciously or unconsciously by learners in many situations. This type of anxiety relates to apprehension towards academic evaluation which is based on a fear of failure. Finally,fear of negative evaluation happens when foreign language learners feel incapable of making the proper social impression and it is an apprehension towards evaluations by others and avoidance of evaluative situations (Horwitz and Young, 1991).
220.127.116.11 Sources of Language Learning Anxiety
Language learning anxiety may have different sources. Chan and Wu (2004) identified five major sources of foreign language anxiety among elementary school children. These sources are an anxious personality, fear of negative evaluation, low language proficiency, competitive games, and pressure from parents and self. Similarly, the primary sources of language anxiety, explicated by Horwitz et al. (1986), are communication apprehension, fear of negative evaluation, and test anxiety. Subaşı (2010) observed that the main sources of the Turkish EFL Students’ anxiety in oral practice are students’ fear of negative evaluation, thier self-perceived speaking ability, personal reasons, teachers’ manners, teaching procedures, and previous experience.
According to Daly (1991), genetic disposition, early reinforcements and punishments, early communication skills, and exposure to appropriate model of communication are possible factors for language anxiety. In a study by Wörde (1998), the participants reported that non-comprehension, the pace and the risk of being singled out in speaking activities, the limited time devoted to teaching and instructional practices, the risk of being humiliated through error correction, and the presence of native speakers could make them more anxious than usual.
Young (1991) in a review of the previous research has summarized six possible sources of second language anxiety: (1) personal and interpersonal issues, (2) instructor-learner interactions, (3) classroom procedures, (4) language testing, (5) instructor beliefs about language learning, and (6) learner beliefs about language learning.
Woodrow (2006) makes a distinction between in-class and out-of-class anxiety, pointing out that communication with teachers and performing in front of a class are the major contributors to language anxiety in speaking classes. In particular, giving oral presentations, role-play in front of class, contribution to formal discussions, answering teacher questions, and informally speaking teachers have been reported as major reasons for learners’ in-class anxiety.
In addition, Tanveer (2007) suggested that the learner’s self in particular that usually result in anxiety-breeding situations. Accordingly, learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and poor command of language could lead to a higher level of anxiety. Furthermore, some other extrinsic factors such as social and cultural environments may be the reasons for stressful situations. Other factors such as speaking in front of others was rated as the biggest cause of anxiety followed by worries about grammatical mistakes, pronunciation, and being unable to talk spontaneously (Awan et al., 2010).
Finally, important causes of anxiety among ESL/EFL learners in China in a study by Tseng (2012) were pressure by parents and teachers to get good grades at school in English, lack of confidence in students’ ability to learn English, fear of making mistakes and subsequent punishment or ostracism, i.e., fear of losing face for not being perfect, and conditioning in childhood to believe that English is an extremely difficult. Shabani (2012) observed that the prime sources of language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among Iranian EFL Learners are fear of failing class and fear of leaving unfavorable impression on others, respectively.
18.104.22.168 Language Learning Anxiety and Gender
Gender is a significant variable in language learning process and has important theoretical and pedagogical implications in second and foreign language learning. Besides, research results on language anxiety and gender provide further insights about individualized instruction based on the gender differences in language learning settings. The significance of language learning anxiety has made researchers perform many studies in terms of different variables, especially gender. Padilla, Cervantes, Maldonado, and García (1988) focused on foreign language anxiety and gender and observed that female learners are more concerned about language complications than male learners and that they are more anxious and worried than male students.
Campbell and Shaw (1994) showed a significant interaction between gender and foreign language anxiety in the sense that male students were more anxiety-ridden in using a foreign language in the classroom than their female counterparts after a certain amount of instruction in that foreign language. Kitano (2001) investigated students from two U.S. universities who were enrolled in Japanese courses. The results indicated that male students’ anxiety levels were negatively correlated with their self-perceived ability to perform various tasks in spoken Japanese, whereas female students did not show this tendency.
In addition, in a study performed by AyashEzzi (2012) about gender impact on the foreign language anxiety among Yemeni University Students , it was found that both male and female students had a high level of foreign language anxiety but female-students’ anxiety was higher than that of male students. On the contrary, Awan et al., (2010) found that female students are less anxious in learning English as a foreign language than male students.
Mesri (2012) investigated the relationship between EFL learners’ Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) and gender. The data were gathered through the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986) from 52 students studying English at Salmas University. The findings indicted that there was a significant relationship between FLCA and gender. It was also noted that Iranian female EFL learners have scored higher mean in all anxiety categories than male learners so Iranian EFL context male had less anxiety to learn English. Based on this finding, it was recommended that foreign language teachers should be aware of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety (FLCA) level, its causes and results. Similarly, Murlidharan and Sharma (1971) found that females were more anxious than males when it comes to reading comprehension in the sense those male students with lower levels of anxiety had better reading ability while female students with higher levels of anxiety had lower reading ability.
Nahavandi and Mukundan (2013) explored the level of anxiety of 548 Iranian EFL students towards English as a foreign language to find out whether anxiety domains differed across different first languages, proficiency levels, and gender. The results indicated that students experienced anxiety in all four scales of communication apprehension, test anxiety, fear of negative evaluation, and fear of English classes. In addition, communication anxiety was found to be the predominant anxiety component in the students, as compared to other three scales. The results also suggested that gender and first language did not affect their anxiety significantly. However, level of proficiency affected the participants’ anxiety in all four domains significantly.
2.1.2 Motivation by Definition
Merriam Webbster Dictionary defines motivation as “a: the act or process of motivatig, b: the condition
of being motivated, c: amotivating force, stimulus, or influence” (p. 810). Harmer (2007, p. 98) defined motivation as “the dynamically changing cumulative arousal or internal drive in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes”. Through this drive, initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritized, operationalized, and successfully or unsuccessfully acted out.
Motivation has also been defined as “some kind of internal drive which pushes someone to do things in order to achieve something” (Harmer, 2001, p. 51). As stated by Brown (1994, p. 152), motivation is a term that is used to define the success or the failure of any complex task. Steers and Porter (1991, p. 6) considers three matters while discussing motivation:
• What energizes human behavior;
• What directs or channels such behavior, and
• how this behavior is maintained or sustained.
Motivation is thought to be responsible for “why people decide to do something, how long they are willing to sustain the activity, and how hard they are going to pursue it (Dörnyei, 2001, p. 8). Ryan and Deci (2000a, p. 54) state that “to be motivated means to be moved to do something”. Unlike unmotivated people who have lost impetus and inspiration to act, motivated people are energized and activated to the end of a task. “Interest, curiosity, or a desire to achieve” (Williams and Burden, 1997, p. 111) are the key factors that compose motivated people. However, they argue that arousing interest is not enough to be motivated but the interest should be sustained. In addition, time and energy should be invested, and the effect which is required needs to be maintained so as to reach a desired goal. According to Steers and Porter (1991, p 6), motivation can be characterized as follows: needs or expectations, behavior, goals, andsome form of feedback.
Trang and Baldauf (2007) found that several factors affect Vietnamese students’ motivation. One of these important factors was getting good marks. In fact, two of three students considered gaining good marks as an important factor for their motivation. Another factor found to affect students to motivate was the fulfillment of teacher expectation. In addition, the feedback provided by their teachers about the work affects their motivation. In other words, students were more motivated if their teachers check their work and provide explicitly feedback about their weakness and strengths. Moreover, teaching techniques was another important factor affecting students to be motivated for learning. Topics especially those related to daily life were considered as another source of motivation. Last but not least was linguistic need of student that may affect their motivation to study more.
According to Gardner (2010), motivation is a construct that is difficult to define, but he identifies characteristics that motivated individuals show. Gardner believes motivated individuals express effort in achieving one’s goals, show persistence, attend to the tasks necessary to achieve the goals, have a strong willingness to attain their goals, enjoy the activities necessary to achieve such goals, are aroused in pursuing their goals, and have expectancies about their successes or failures. He points out when these individuals are achieving some degree of success, they demonstrate self-efficacy, and they are self-confident about their achievements. They have reasons for their behavior which are often called motives.
22.214.171.124 Types of Motivation
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a motivation theory developed in the field of psychology (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Because of its comprehensive perspective on human motivation, the theory has been used in different research fields such as education (Reeve, 2002) and second language acquisition (Noels, Clement, &Pelletier, 2001). The theory conceptualized two main types of