their motivation to learn English.
The findings of the study concerning the relationship between the participants’ language proficiency and their level of anxiety generally indicated that the participants with lower levels of the language learning anxiety were more proficient English learners and vice versa as there was a negative significant relationship between the participants’ language learning anxiety and their English proficiency.
It was also noted that the highly motivated participants scored slightly higher on the English proficiency test than did the low motivated participants. Accordingly, there was a positive significant relationship between the participants’ motivation and their English proficiency. The findings of this study concerning the male and female participants’ language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and their English proficiency indicated that there was no significant difference between the anxiety level of male and female participants. Concerning the participants’ level of motivation, it was noted that the female participants were slightly were motivated to learn English than the male participants were. However, there was no significant difference between the motivation level of male and female participants in this study.
The results of the study in terms of the males and females’ English proficiency suggest that the female participants had a slightly better performance in the proficiency test than the male participants did. However, there was no significant difference between males and females’ performance on the proficiency, and both male and female participants had a similar level of English proficiency in this study.
On the whole, the findings showed that there was no significant difference between the male and female participants concerning their language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and their English proficiency, indicating that gender did not play a determining role in these three variables.
As was mentioned earlier, the purpose of this study was to examine foreign language anxiety among Iranian EFL learners and how it is related to their motivation. It was also attempt to find out whether there is any significant relationship between anxiety, motivation, and language proficiency of Iranian EFL learners. Having presented a summary of the results, this section concludes the study with a restatement of the research questions and their responses.
5.2.1 To what extent do Iranian intermediate EFL learners experience anxiety in language classrooms?
The findings of the study indicated that the majority of Iranian intermediate EFL learners were in the mid-anxiety followed by the high-anxiety group and the low anxiety group. On the whole, nearly 81% of the participants experienced a mid to high level of language learning anxiety while the remaining 18.8% experienced a low level of anxiety. Besides, the female learners experienced slightly more foreign language anxiety than the male learners.
5.2.2 Is there any relationship between Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ level of anxiety and motivation?
According to the findings of the study, there was a negative significant relationship between the Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ language learning anxiety and their motivation to learn English. Accordingly, the EFL learners with lower levels of the language learning anxiety were more motivated to learn English. In contrast, those participants with higher levels of the language learning anxiety were less motivated to learn English.
5.2.3 Is there any significant relationship between Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ language proficiency, level of anxiety, & motivation?
The results of the study suggested that there was a negative significant relationship between the Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ level of English proficiency, their language learning anxiety, and their motivation to learn English in the sense that the participants with lower levels of the language learning anxiety were more motivated to learn English while those with higher levels of the language learning anxiety were less motivated to learn English. In addition, the participants with lower levels of the language learning anxiety were more proficient English learners and vice versa. Finally, it was noted that the highly motivated participants scored slightly higher on the English proficiency test that did the low motivated participants.
5.2.4 Is gender a determining factor in the relationship between anxiety, motivation and language proficiency level of Iranian intermediate EFL learners?
The findings of the present study showed that there was no significant difference between the male and female participants concerning their language learning anxiety, motivation to learn English, and their English proficiency, suggesting that gender did not serve as a determining role in the relationship between these three variables.
5.3 Pedagogical Implications
The findings of this study can provide useful insights into EFL learners’ experience with foreign language learning anxiety and how it may affect their motivation to learn English and their level of English proficiency. Besides, such findings can provide some valuable points which serves as guidelines to be taken into account by EFL teachers and researchers:
– As the findings of the present study suggessted that the majority of the Iranian EFL learners were experiencing a mid to high level of language learning anxiety, EFL teachers and educators are encouraged to adopt approaches and mechanisms in order to reduce the level of anxiety among their learners as much as possible and enhance their learning outcomes accordingly.
– According to the findings of the study, EFL teachers can motivate language learners by creating less anxiety-provoking situations so that the learners can overcome their worries and fears in language classrooms.
– Finally, EFL teachers and practitioners are recommended to provide more help and assistance to less proficient language learners in order to reduce their level of foreign language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation in language classrooms.
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research
Based on the findings and limitations of the present study, the following inspirations and suggestions may provide interested researchers with new lines of research in this area:
– As the focus of the present study was on the level of language learning anxiety among Iranian intermediate EFL learners, future researchers are suggested to address foreign language anxiety among EFL learners at different levels of English proficiency.
– The present study examined the relationship betweenanxiety, motivation, and language proficiency. Future studies can focus on the relationship between anxiety and other factors related to language learners.
– Although the present study found that genrder is not a determining role in the relationship between anxiety, motivation, and language proficiency, future studies can explore the role of gender with regard to such factors among larger populations.
5.5 Limitations of the Study
The present study suffered from a number of shortcomings. For instance, some of the participants were not willing to participate in the study, and they filled the questionnaires with less care and attention. So, in order not to endanger the reliability of the data and thus the generalizability of the findings, their responses were excluded from the data analysis. In addition, the number of the participants in the present study was rather limited, and this may question the generalizability and the application of findings to larger language learning contexts. Finally, due to the inaccessibility of EFL learners, only EFL learners at an available university were included in the sample under study.
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